SIGN UP

SIGN IN

CD


Consult

Online exam

Resources


Second Part

Third Part

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM  
  Free demo

1.1

Major notions

1.2

The Nobel Prize laureates in immunology

Chapter 2

ORGANS AND CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 
  Password protected

2.1

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ORGANS

2.1.1

Thymus and bone marrow

2.1.2

The secondary immune organs

2.2

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM CELLS

2.2.1

The major features of the cells

2.2.2

T lymphopoiesis

2.2.3

Burnet's clonal selection theory

2.2.4

B lymphopoiesis

2.2.5

NK cells

2.2.6

Monocyte/macrophage system

2.2.7

Dendritic cells

2.2.8

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes

2.2.9

Immune cell functions

QUIZ

Chapter 3

MOLECULES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 
 Password protected

3.1

ANTIGENS AND PATHOGEN-ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERNS (PAMPs)

3.2

MOLECULES IN IMMUNE REACTIONS

3.2.1

Immunoglobulins

3.2.2

Major histocompatibility complex

3.2.3

Antigen-recognizing receptors

3.2.4

Adhesion molecules

3.2.5

Leukocyte migration

3.2.6

Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

QUIZ

Chapter 4

THE IMMUNE RESPONSES 
 Password protected

4.1

PATHWAYS AND STEPS OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSES

4.2

PRELIMINARY EVENTS: ANTIGEN PROCESSING

4.2.1

The HLA II pathway

4.2.2

The HLA I pathway

4.3

RECOGNITION

4.3.1

Types of recognizing stimuli

4.3.2

"Dual recognition" of antigen/HLA complex

4.3.3

Cytokine signals

4.3.4

Interactions of costimulatory molecules

4.3.5

Adhesion molecules for physical contacts

4.4

SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND ACTIVATION

4.4.1

Signaling pathways

4.4.2

Phenotype of the activated cells

4.5

CLONAL EXPANSION OF T AND B CELLS

4.5.1

Proliferation of T cells

4.5.2

Proliferation of B cells and BCR affinity maturation

4.6

DIFFERENTIATION OF EFFECTOR AND MEMORY CELLS

4.6.1

T cell differentiation

4.6.2

B cell differentiation and isotype switching

4.6.3

Memory cells

QUIZ

Chapter 5

REGULATION OF THE IMMUNE PROCESSES 
 Password protected

5.1

IMMUNE SELF-REGULATION

5.1.1

The idiotype/anti-idiotype network

5.1.2

The T-cell-mediated suppression and the Th1/Th2 paradigm

5.1.3

Cytokines and chemokines

5.2

THE LIVER REGULATION

5.3

THE ENDOCRINE GLAND REGULATION

5.4

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM REGULATION

5.5

GENETIC REGULATION

5.5.1

Provision of diversity of the specific molecules

5.5.2

Provision of power of the immune responses

5.6

THE IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE

5.6.1

Central and peripheral mechanisms

5.6.2

Tolerance in pregnancy

QUIZ

Chapter 6

EFFECTOR ACTIVITY 
 Password protected

6.1

NONSPECIFIC EFFECTOR MECHANISMS

6.1.1

Acute phase reaction

6.1.2

Complement: activation via alternative pathway

6.1.3

Nonspecific phagocytosis

6.1.4

Natural cytotoxicity system

6.2

SPECIFIC EFFECTOR ACTIVITY

6.2.1

Immune complexes' formation

6.2.2

Complement activation via classical pathway

6.2.3

Antigen opsonization by antibodies and phagocytosis

6.2.4

Cytotoxic T cell reactions: apoptosis of targets

6.2.5

Immune inflammation

6.2.6

Transplantation

6.2.7

Specific lymphocytic effectors and their targets

QUIZ

Chapter 7

THE IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS 
 Password protected

7.1

ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS

7.1.1

The tentative, quantitative and separation methods

7.1.2

Western blot

7.1.3

Monoclonal technology

7.1.4

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

7.1.5

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

7.1.6

Immunofluorescence staining

7.1.7

The flow cytofluorimetry

7.2

FUNCTIONAL TESTS

7.2.1

Lymphoblast transformation test (LTT)

7.2.2

Cytotoxicity assay

7.2.3

The complement assays

7.2.4

The migration and phagocytosis assays

7.3

MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL METHODS

7.3.1

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RT-PCR

7.3.2

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

7.3.3

DNA microarray technology

7.4

EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND SCREENING TESTS

7.4.1

Experimental animals

7.4.2

Screening tests for clinical purposes

7.5

NANOIMMUNICS

QUIZ

2006 V.V.Klimov All rights reserved