Chapter 1. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

1.1.Major notions

1.2. The Nobel Prize laureates in immunology


In XX century about 30 scientists became the Nobel Prize laureates in physiology or medicine for works in immunology and related sister fields.


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1.2. THE NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATES IN IMMUNOLOGY

  • 1901 E.A. Von Behring (Germany) for the work on serum therapy especially its application against diphtheria.

  • 1905 R. Koch (Germany) for the investigations concerning tuberculosis.

  • 1908 E. Metchnikoff (Russia) and P. Ehrlich(Germany) for their work on immunity (respectively, phagocytosis/cellular theory and humoral theory).

  • 1913 C.R. Richet (France) for the work on anaphylaxis.

  • 1919 J. Bordet (Belgium) for the discoveries relating to immunity (complement).

  • 1930 K. Landsteiner (Austria/USA) for the discovery of human blood groups.

  • 1951 M. Theiler (South Africa) for the discoveries and developments concerning yellow fever.

  • 1957 D. Bovet (Italy/Switzerland) for the discoveries related to histamine and compounds, which inhibit action of histamine and other substances on the vascular system and the skeleton muscles.

  • 1960 Sir F.McFarlane Burnet (Australia) and Sir P.B. Medawar (Great Britain) for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance.

  • 1972 G.M. Edelman (USA) and R.R. Porter (Great Britain) for their discovery concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.

  • 1977 R. Yalow (USA) for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

  • 1980 B. Benacerraf (USA), J. Dausset (France) and G.D. Snell (USA) for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface (major histocompatibility complex) that regulate immunological reactions.

  • 1982 S. K. Bergstrom (Sweden), B. I. Samuelsson (Sweden) and J. R. Vane (UK) for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.

  • 1984 N.K. Jerne (Denmark/Switzerland) for theories concerning the specificity in development (lymphocyte clonality) and control of the immune system;

  • +G.J.F. Köhler (Germany/Switzerland) and C. Milstein (Argentina/Great Britain) for the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.

  • 1987 S. Tonegawa (Japan/USA) for the discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.

  • 1990 J.E. Murray and E.D. Thomas (USA) for their discovery concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human diseases.

  • 1996 P.C. Doherty (Australia/USA) and R.M. Zinkernagel (Switzerland) for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defense ("dual recognition").

  • 1997 S.B. Prusiner (USA) for the discovery of prions as a new biological principle of infection.

  • 1999 G. Blobel (USA) for discoveries concerning signal transduction.  

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